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Automotive industry

Modern assembly line
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The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles,[1] some of them are called automakers.
It is one of the world’s most important economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry.[2]


  • 1 History
  • 2 Safety
  • 3 Economy
  • 4 World motor vehicle production
    • 4.1 By year
    • 4.2 By country
    • 4.3 By manufacturer
    • 4.4 By market segment
  • 5 Company relationships
    • 5.1 Stake holding
    • 5.2 Joint ventures
  • 6 Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume
  • 7 Car brands and parent companies
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links


Main article: History of the automobile
Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
Fiat assembly line in 1961

The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[3] After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world’s auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world’s leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.[4] From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.[5]


Main article: Automobile safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.[6]

In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.


See also: Automotive industry by country

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[7] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down.[8] It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport.[9] Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[10]
Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate.[11][12] However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries.[8] In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.[13]

World motor vehicle production[edit]

@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti>.thumbinner{width:100%!important;max-width:none!important}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:none!important;width:100%!important;text-align:center}}World Motor Vehicle Production[14]Production volume (1000 vehicles)

1960s: Post war increase

1970s: Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.

1990s: production started in NICs

2000s: rise of China as top producer

Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010to 1950: USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.[15]

1950s: UK, Germany and France restarted production.

1960s: Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s.
US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.

1990s: Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.

2000s: China increased its production drastically, and became the world’s largest producing country in 2009 .

2013: The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%.

By year[edit]

See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production
Car exports by country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
Global automobile import and export in 2011

By country[edit]

Main article: Automotive industry by country

The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up.[36][37]

  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Australia (main page)
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bangladesh (main page)
  • Belarus (main page)
  • Belgium
  • Brazil (main page)
  • Bulgaria (main page)
  • Canada (main page)
  • China (main page)
  • Colombia
  • Czech Republic
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • Finland
  • France (main page)
  • Ghana
  • Germany (main page)
  • Hungary (main page)
  • India (main page)
  • Indonesia (main page)
  • Iran (main page)
  • Italy (main page)
  • Japan (main page)
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya (main page)
  • Morocco (main page)
  • Malaysia (main page)
  • Mexico (main page)
  • Netherlands
  • Pakistan (main page)
  • Philippines
  • Poland (main page)
  • Portugal
  • Romania (main page)
  • Russia (main page)
  • Serbia (main page)
  • Slovakia (main page)
  • Slovenia
  • South Africa (main page)
  • South Korea (main page)
  • Spain (main page)
  • Sweden (main page)
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand (main page)
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey (main page)
  • Ukraine (main page)
  • United Kingdom (main page)
  • United States (main page)
  • Uzbekistan (main page)
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam

By manufacturer[edit]

See also: List of manufacturers by motor vehicle production

This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.[35]

By market segment[edit]

Company relationships[edit]

Stake holding[edit]

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

  • Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ.
  • Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.
  • Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance.
  • Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group,
  • Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors.
  • Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and an 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe.
  • FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile.
  • FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari.
  • FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija.
  • FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding.
  • Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks.
  • Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, and Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz. FMG, China Motor, and Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, and both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars.[38]
  • Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimler AG.
  • Geely Holding Group holds an 8.3% stake and a 15.9% exercisable voting rights in AB Volvo.
  • General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake.
  • General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra holds a 70% stake in SsangYong Motor
  • MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
  • Marcopolo owns 19% of New Flyer Industries.
  • Mitsubishi Group holds 20% of Mitsubishi Motors.
  • Nissan owns 34% of Mitsubishi Motors and had the since October 2016,[39] thus having the right to nominate the chairman of Mitsubishi Motors’s board and a third of its directors.[40]
  • Nissan owns 43% of Nissan Shatai.
  • Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
  • Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance (Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares.
  • Renault-Nissan Alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
  • Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ
  • Renault holds an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
  • SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro.
  • Toyota holds a 100% stake in Daihatsu.
  • Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in Hino.
  • Toyota holds a 16.7% stake in Subaru Corporation, parent company of Subaru.
  • Toyota holds a 5.9% stake in Isuzu.
  • Toyota holds a 5.05% stake in Mazda, while Mazda holds 0.25% stake in Toyota[41].
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 99.55% stake in the Audi Group.
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights), Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
  • Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
  • ZAP holds a 51% stake in Zhejiang Jonway.

Joint ventures[edit]

  • Beijing Automotive Group has a joint venture with Daimler called Beijing Benz, both companies hold a 50-50% stake. both companies also have a joint venture called Beijing Foton Daimler Automobile.
  • Beijing Automotive Group also has a joint venture with Hyundai called Beijing Hyundai, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • BMW and Brilliance have a joint venture called BMW Brilliance. BMW owns a 50% stake, Brilliance owns a 40.5% stake, and the Shenyang municipal government owns a 9.5% stake.
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with Groupe PSA (Changan PSA), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Changan Automobile has a joint venture with Suzuki (Changan Suzuki), both hold a 50-50% stake,
  • Changan Automobile has a 50-50% joint venture with Mazda (Changan Mazda).
  • Changan Automobile and Ford have a 50-50% joint venture called Changan Ford.
  • Changan Automobile and Jiangling Motors have a joint venture called Jiangxi Jiangling.
  • Chery has a joint venture with Tata Motors called Chery Jaguar Land Rover, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Chery and Israel Corporation has a joint venture called Qoros, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Daimler AG and BYD Auto have a joint venture called Denza, both companies hold a 50-50% stake.
  • Dongfeng Motor and Nissan have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Motor Company.
  • Dongfeng Motor and PSA Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Honda called Dongfeng Honda,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a joint venture with AB Volvo called Dongfeng Nissan-Diesel,
  • Dongfeng Motor has a 50-50% joint venture with Renault named Dongfeng Renault in Wuhan, which was founded in the end of 2013
  • Ford and Navistar International have a 50-50 joint venture called Blue Diamond Truck.
  • Ford and Sollers JSC have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Sollers.
  • Ford and Koç Holding have a 50-50 joint venture called Ford Otosan.
  • Ford and Lio Ho Group have a joint venture called Ford Lio Ho, Ford owns 70% and Lio Ho Group owns 30%.
  • FAW Group and General Motors has a 50-50 joint venture called FAW-GM,
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Volkswagen Group called FAW-Volkswagen,
  • FAW Group has a 50-50 joint venture with Toyota called Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor and both companies also have another joint venture called Ranz.
  • General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), both have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited.
  • General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%.
  • General Motors, AvtoVAZ, and EBRD have a joint venture called GM-AvtoVAZ, Both GM and AvtoVAZ owns 41.61% and EBRD owns 16.76%.
  • Hyundai Motor Company and Kibar Holding has a joint venture called Hyundai Assan Otomotiv, Hyundai owns 70% and Kibar Holding owns 30%.
  • Isuzu and Anadolu Group have a 50-50% joint venture called Anadolu Isuzu.
  • Isuzu and General Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called Isuzu Truck South Africa.
  • Isuzu, Sollers JSC, and Imperial Sojitz have a joint venture called Sollers-Isuzu, Sollers JSC owns 66%, Isuzu owns 29%, and Imperial Sojitz owns 5%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International have a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra has a joint venture with Renault called Mahindra Renault, where Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Renault owns 49%.
  • MAN SE and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN SE owns 49%.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • PSA Groupe and Toyota have a 50-50% joint venture called Toyota Peugeot Citroen Automobile Czech
  • Sollers JSC is involved in joint ventures with Ford (Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
  • Tata Motors also formed a joint venture in India with Fiat and gained access to Fiat’s diesel engine technology.
  • Tata Motors and Marcopolo have a joint venture called Tata Marcopolo, where Tata owns 51% and Marcopolo owns 49%.
  • Volvo Group and Eicher Motors has a 50-50% joint venture called VE Commercial Vehicles.

Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume[edit]

The table below shows the world’s 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2016 production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[42][43]

Car brands and parent companies[edit]

The table below lists most car brands and their parent companies.

See also[edit]

  • Automotive industry portal
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • Automotive industry by country
  • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
  • Automotive industry in the United States
  • Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
  • Effects of the 2008–10 automotive industry crisis on the United States
  • List of countries by motor vehicle production
  • Motocycle
  • List of largest automotive companies by revenue



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  • ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). “Auto industry sets new world record”. The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
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  • ^ “2000 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2001 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2002 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2003 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2004 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2005 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2006 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2007 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2008 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2009 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2010 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2011 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2012 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2013 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2014 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2015 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ “2016 Production Statistics”.
  • ^ a b OICA: World Motor Vehicle Production
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  • ^ “China’s Geely to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton”. 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
  • ^ “Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors – BBC News”. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
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  • ^ “TTAC Announces World’s Top Ten Automakers”. The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
  • External links[edit]

    • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers


    • Automobile sales by model
    • Best-selling automobiles
    • Countries by motor vehicle production
    • Countries by car exports
    • Countries by vehicles per capita
    • Top manufacturers


    • Automotive industry crisis of 2008–10
    • History of the automobile
    • History of the internal combustion engine
    • History of the motorcycle
    • Timeline of motor vehicle brands


    • Automobile manufacturers
      • marques
    • Motorcycle manufacturers
    • Truck manufacturers
    • Minor automotive manufacturing groups


    • Association for Standardisation of Automation and Measuring Systems
    • European Automobile Manufacturers Association
    • Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles

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    • Automotive design
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